Medical Glossary

Acute myocardial infarction

is a heart attack.


is a substance which enhances the body’s immune response to an antigen.


is any protein that is soluble in water and moderately concentrated salt solutions and is coagulable by heat. It is found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. In the human body, serum albumin is the major plasma protein (approximately 60 per cent of the total).

Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (AATD)

is an inherited condition that causes low levels of, or no, alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) in the blood. AATD is a protein made in the liver and enables normal function of the lungs.

Anti-D immunoglobulin,

also called Rh (D) immunoglobulin, is an injection of Anti- Rhesus antibodies given to a woman whose blood group is Rhesus negative, if there is a chance that she has been exposed to Rhesus positive blood either during pregnancy or blood transfusion.


(or antivenin, or antivenene) is a biological product used in the treatment of venomous bites or stings.

Autoimmune diseases

is when the body's immune system attacks healthy cells.


are proteins (including antibodies), nucleic acids (DNA, RNA or antisense oligonucleotides) used for prophylactic or therapeutic purposes.

Cell-based (technology)

for the manufacture of influenza vaccines, is a process of growing viruses in animal cells.

C1 Esterase Inhibitor

is a protein found in the fluid part of blood that controls C1 the first component of the complement system. The complement system is a group of proteins that move freely through the blood stream. These proteins work with the immune system and play a role in the development of inflammation.

Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP)

is a neurological disorder which causes gradual weakness and a loss in sensation mainly in the arms and legs.


is the process of clot formation.

Common Variable Immune Deficiency

is one of the most frequently diagnosed primary immunodeficiencies, especially in adults, characterised by low levels of immunoglobulins and antibodies, which causes an increased susceptibility to infection.

Diabetes, Type 2

is a chronic condition that occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin and/or the insulin does not work effectively.


is a coagulation factor found in human plasma that is crucial for blood clot formation.


is the process of separating plasma into its component parts, such as clotting factors, albumin and immunoglobulin, and purifying them.


is a glycoprotein that stimulates the bone marrow to produce granulocytes and stem cells and release them into the bloodstream.

Haemolytic Disease

is a disease that disrupts the integrity of red blood cells causing the release of haemoglobin.


is a haemorrhagic cluster of diseases occurring in two main forms:

1. Haemophilia A (classic haemophilia, factor VIII deficiency), an X linked disorder due to deficiency of coagulation factor VIII.
2. Haemophilia B (factor IX deficiency, Christmas disease), also X linked, due to deficiency of coagulation factor IX.

Haemostasis (Haemostatic)

is the stopping of blood flow.

Hereditary Angioedema (HAE)

is a rare but serious genetic disorder caused by low levels or improper function of a protein called C1 esterase inhibitor. It causes swelling, particularly of the face and airways, and abdominal cramping.

Hereditary Emphysema

is a physiological condition that results in excessive amounts of white blood cells (neutrophils) to enter the lungs and cause inflammation and chronic lung disease.

Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)

is a diverse group of DNA-based viruses that infect the skin and mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. Some HPV types cause benign skin warts, or papillomas, for which the virus family is named. Others can lead to the development of cervical dyskaryosis, which may in turn lead to cancer of the cervix.

Immunoglobulins (IgG),

also known as antibodies, are proteins produced by plasma cells. They are designed to control the body’s immune response by binding to substances in the body that are recognised as foreign antigens (often proteins on the surface of bacteria or viruses).


commonly known as flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by a RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses).


is the administration of drugs or fluids directly into a vein.


is a group of cancers that affect the blood and bone marrow.

Monoclonal Antibody (mAb)

is an antibody produced by a single clone of cells. Monoclonal antibodies are a cornerstone of immunology and are increasingly coming into use as therapeutic agents.


is the science of nerves and the nervous system.

Neutrophil infiltration

is the diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils (white blood cells) in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.

Perioperative Bleeding

is bleeding during an operation.


is the yellow-colored liquid component of blood in which blood cells are suspended.

Primary Immunodeficiency (PID)

is an inherited condition where there is an impaired immune response. It may be in one or more aspects of the immune system.


is the action of a vaccine or drug that acts to defend against or prevent a disease.

Quadrivalent influenza vaccine

is a vaccine that offers protection against four different influenza virus strains.


are proteins prepared by recombinant technology. Procedures are used to join together segments in a cell-free system (an environment outside a cell organism).


is the administration of drugs or fluids into the subcutaneous tissue, which is located just below the skin.


is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system.

Trivalent influenza vaccine

is a vaccine that offers protection against three different influenza virus strains.

Von Willebrand Disease (vWD)

is a hereditary disorder caused by defective or deficient Von Willebrand factor, a protein involved in normal blood clotting.


is an anticoagulant used to prevent heart attacks, strokes, and blood clots.